Mauro Morales

software developer

Tag: Kubernetes

  • Deploying a Go Microservice in Kubernetes

    Most of my experience with web applications is with monoliths deployed to a PaaS or using configuration management tools to traditional servers. Last week, I submerged myself in a different paradigm, the one of microservices. In this post, I’m going to share what I learned by deploying a Go application on top of Kubernetes.

    To follow along, you’ll need to have Go, Docker, and Kubernetes installed in your system. I’d recommend using something like K3d and K3s to install Kubernetes on your machine if you don’t have access to one already.

    The hello server

    First, we’ll start by writing an elementary microservice. Let’s create a web server that responds with Hello and whatever we passed as the path of the URL.

    In a clean directory, we initialize and tidy Go. You can replace my GitHub username, mauromorales, for yours.

    go mod init
    go mod tidy

    Create the file main.go which will describe our microservice.

    //A simple web server that responds with "Hello " and whatever you pass as the
    //path of the URL. It also logs the requests
    package main
    import (
    func Log(handler http.Handler) http.Handler {
    	return http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    		log.Printf("%s %s %s", r.RemoteAddr, r.Method, r.URL)
    		handler.ServeHTTP(w, r)
    func main() {
    	http.HandleFunc("/", HelloServer)
    	http.ListenAndServe(":8080", Log(http.DefaultServeMux))
    func HelloServer(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hello, %s!\n", r.URL.Path[1:])

    To test everything is working properly, run the microservice with

    go run main.go

    and on a different terminal make a web request

    % curl http://localhost:8080/Go
    Hello, Go!

    And you should also see a log for the request on the terminal running the hello-server

    % go run main.go 
    2022/12/30 11:42:42 GET /Go

    A container version

    Kubernetes might be written in Go, but it wouldn’t understand how to deal with our hello-server. The minimal unit of processing in K8s is the container, so let’s put our code into one. In a file called Dockerfile add the following content:

    FROM golang as builder
    WORKDIR /app/
    COPY . .
    RUN CGO_ENABLED=0 go build -o hello-server /app/main.go
    FROM alpine:latest
    WORKDIR /app
    COPY --from=builder /app/ /app/
    EXPOSE 8080
    CMD ./hello-server

    Let’s first build an image

    docker build -t .

    When it’s done building, it will show up as one of your images

    % docker images
    REPOSITORY                     TAG            IMAGE ID       CREATED         SIZE
    mauromorales/hello-server      0.1.1          3960783c4afe   36 seconds ago   19.8MB

    So let’s run it

    docker run --rm -p 8080:8080 mauromorales/hello-server:0.1.1

    And in a different terminal test that it’s still working as expected

    % curl http://localhost:8080/Docker
    Hello, Docker!

    Looking back at the running container, we see that again our request was logged

    % docker run --rm -p 8080:8080 mauromorales/hello-server:0.1.1
    2022/12/30 10:48:57 GET /Docker

    Deploying hello-server to Kubernetes

    Let’s begin by uploading the image we built in the last step, to the docker hub. For which you need an account.

    docker login --username mauromorales

    And once logged in, you can push the image

    docker push mauromorales/hello-server:0.1.1

    This process will be in iterations to understand the different components in K8S


    Initially, we will only deploy a pod (a grouping mechanism for containers) of one single container. To achieve this, we create a file called pod.yaml add the following definition:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
      name: hello-server
        app: hello-server
        - name: hello-server
          image: mauromorales/hello-server:0.1.1
          imagePullPolicy: Always
            - name: http
              containerPort: 5000
              protocol: TCP

    And apply it:

    % kubectl apply -f pod.yaml
    pod/hello-server created

    You should now see it listed:

    % kubectl get pods         
    NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    hello-server                 1/1     Running   0          111s

    While the pod is running in the background, we need to forward the port to access it:

    kubectl port-forward pod/hello-server 8080:8080

    Now you can test again that it is working, by curling to it from a different terminal.

    % curl http://localhost:8080/Pod
    Hello, Pod!

    But if you go back to the port forwarding, you will not see any logs. All you see are the logs of the port-forward command.

    % kubectl port-forward pod/hello-server 8080:8080
    Forwarding from -> 8080
    Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 8080
    Handling connection for 8080

    To read the pod logs, we require kubectl.

    % kubectl logs pod/hello-server 
    2022/12/30 10:59:56 GET /Pod


    So far so good, but unfortunately a pod is not really implementing the microservice pattern. If the pod is restarted, it might lose its IP. For our little example this is not a problem, but if we were to have more than one microservice talking to each other, we would need to find a way to share the new IPs between the different microservices. Thankfully, Kubernetes comes with a solution to this issue, services.

    Let’s write one inside service.yaml

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
      name: hello-server-svc
        app: hello-server
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 8080
          targetPort: 8080

    Now, apply the service:

    % kubectl apply -f service.yaml 
    service/hello-server-svc created

    And as usual, we do some port forwarding, but this time to the service instead of the pod:

    kubectl port-forward service/hello-server-svc 8080:8080

    Let’s test it in the second terminal

    % curl http://localhost:8080/Service
    Hello, Service!

    And look at the service logs

    % kubectl logs service/hello-server-svc
    2022/12/30 11:15:00 GET /Service


    This is looking much better now, if I wanted to scale this service, all I’d need to do is to create another pod, with the hello-server label. But this would be very tedious and error-prone. Thankfully, Kubernetes gives us deployments, which handle that for us and gives us deployment strategies. Let us then create a deployment with three replicas.

    First, we need to delete the pod we created.

    % kubectl delete pod/hello-server
    pod "hello-server" deleted

    And in a file called deployment.yaml add the following description:

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
      name: hello-server
        app: hello-server
      replicas: 3
          app: hello-server
            app: hello-server 
          - name: hello-server
            imagePullPolicy: Always
            image: mauromorales/hello-server:0.1.1
            - containerPort: 8080

    and apply it

    kubectl apply -f deployment.yaml

    When finished you should be able to list the generated pods

    % kubectl get pods
    NAME                           READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    hello-server                    1/1     Running   0             7m13s
    hello-server-5c7c6f798f-hp99p   1/1     Running   0             13s
    hello-server-5c7c6f798f-f2b4c   1/1     Running   0             13s
    hello-server-5c7c6f798f-2fxdm   1/1     Running   0             13s

    The first pod, is the one we created manually, and the next three are the ones the deployment created for us.

    We start forwarding traffic to the deployment:

    kubectl port-forward service/hello-server-svc 8080:8080

    And test it out

    % curl http://localhost:8080/Deployment
    Hello, Deployment!

    Let us also check the logs:

    % kubectl logs deployment/hello-server
    Found 3 pods, using pod/hello-server-5c7c6f798f-hp99p
    2022/12/30 11:29:47 GET /Deployment

    Port forwarding is nice, but at its current state will only map to one replica, which is less than ideal. In order to load-balance our service, we need to add an ingress rule.

    Create a file ingres.yaml with the following content

    kind: Ingress
      name: hello-server
      annotations: / traefik
      - http:
          - path: /
            pathType: Prefix
                name: hello-server-svc
                  number: 8080

    And apply it

    % kubectl apply -f ingress.yaml created

    As you probably expect it, we need to forward traffic, however this time instead of forwarding to our service, we forward to the traefik service (served on port 80):

    kubectl port-forward -n kube-system service/traefik 8080:80

    Let’s test it out by sending 20 requests this time

    % for i in `seq 1 20`; do curl http://localhost:8080/Traeffic; done
    Hello, Traeffic!

    And have a look at the logs

    kubectl logs deployment/hello-server
    Found 3 pods, using pod/hello-server-5c7c6f798f-hp99p
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic

    And we can also check the individual logs of each pod

    % kubectl logs pod/hello-server-5c7c6f798f-hp99p --since=4m
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    seneca% kubectl logs pod/hello-server-5c7c6f798f-f2b4c --since=4m
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    seneca% kubectl logs pod/hello-server-5c7c6f798f-2fxdm --since=4m
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic
    2022/12/30 11:43:14 GET /Traeffic

    And voilà, you can see how it was properly distributed between our 3 replicas.

    I hope you had as much fun as I did playing with Kubernetes.

  • Introductory Course to Kubernetes on Edge with K3s

    There’s a lot I need to learn for the new project I’m working on. Finding information is not really the problem, there’s quite a lot out there, what is hard is to filter through all the information you might not need and connecting the dots to have a clear perspective on your mind. I found this introductory course to Kubernetes on Edge with K3s, very useful.

  • It’s Kairos Time

    I’m excited to announce that I joined Spectro Cloud. I’ll be part of the team building Kairos, the immutable Linux meta-distribution for edge Kubernetes.

    Ok, a lot to unpack there, and I’m still very new to it, so I have numerous questions myself, but for my own sake, I will unwrap it:

    • Immutable Linux: there are some parts of the file system in the OS that are read-only. This means that if you want to add a package, or make some configuration change, you need to build a new image of the OS with the given changes. This is good for two reasons, on the one hand, it reduces the attack surface and, on the other, it helps to roll back to a specific version of the OS.
    • Meta-distribution: you can pick the flavor of the base Linux distribution on which Kairos is built. For what I can tell, openSUSE, Ubuntu and Alpine are already available, but others could follow up.
    • Edge computing: systems nowadays are being centralized in datacenters. While this can be beneficial in some cases, it can also be unpractical for others. When you have a system, running as far away from the datacenter, then you’re running at the edge of the network. For example, a computer in a parking lot, taking pictures of car plates and calculating the amount they need to be charged.
    • Kubernetes: it’s a platform to deploy applications. It was started by Google and became quite popular. It’s now part of the CNCF.

    For as long as I can remember, I’ve been a Linux enthusiast, so I’m very much looking forward to this experience.